H-beam is an economic and efficient cross-section with optimized cross-sectional area distribution and a reasonable strength-to-weight ratio. It is named after its cross-section, which is the same as the letter “H” in English. Because of the right angle arrangement of all parts of the H-beam, H-beam has the advantages of strong bending resistance, simple construction, cost saving, and light weight of the all-round structure, etc., and has been widely used.
Economical cross-sectional profile with a shape similar to the capital Latin letter H. It is also called a universal steel beam, wide edge (side) I-beam, or parallel flange I-beam. The cross-section of an H-beam usually consists of two parts, the web and the flange, also known as the waist and the sides.
H-beam is a new type of steel for economic construction. H-beam has an economical and reasonable cross-sectional shape and good mechanical properties. During rolling, each point on the cross-section extends more evenly and the internal stress is low. Compared with ordinary I-beam, it has the advantages of large cross-sectional modulus, lightweight and metal saving, which can reduce the building structure by 30-40%; as the legs are parallel inside and outside and the ends of the legs are at right angles, they can be assembled into parts, which can save up to 25% of welding and riveting work. It is commonly used in large buildings (such as factory buildings, high-rise buildings, etc.) that require large cut-off capacity and good section stability, as well as bridges, ships, cranes, equipment foundations, supports, piles, etc.
◆High structural strength: Compared with the I-beam, the section modulus is larger, which can save 10-15% of metal under the same load-bearing condition.
◆Flexible and rich design style: Under the same beam height, the opening of a steel structure can be 50% larger than that of the concrete structure, which makes the building layout more flexible.
◆Self-weight of the structure: Compared with the self-weight of concrete structure, the self-weight of the structure is reduced, which reduces the internal force of the structure design and can reduce the requirements for the foundation treatment of the building structure, and the construction is simple and reduces the cost.
High structural stability: The steel structure mainly made of hot-rolled H-beam has a scientific and reasonable structure, good plasticity and flexibility, and high structural stability. It is suitable for building structures that bear large vibration and impact loads and has a strong ability to resist natural disasters. , especially suitable for some earthquake occurrence areas more building structures. According to statistics, in the world’s devastating earthquake disasters of magnitude 7 and above, the steel structure mainly made of H-beam suffers the least damage.
◆Increase the effective use area of the structure: Compared with concrete structure, the cross-sectional area of the steel structure column is small, which can increase the effective use area of the building. Depending on the building form, it can increase the effective usable area by 4-6%.
◆Saving work and materials: Compared with welded H-beam, it can significantly save work and materials, reduce the consumption of raw materials, energy, and labor, low residual stress, and good appearance and surface quality.
◆Easy mechanical processing: The structure is easy to connect and install, easy to disassemble and reuse.
◆Environmental protection: The use of H-beam can effectively protect the environment, specifically in three aspects: First, compared with concrete, dry construction can be used, with less noise and less dust; second, due to the weight reduction, the amount of soil used for foundation construction is reduced, and the damage to land resources is smaller. In addition, the amount of concrete is greatly reduced and the amount of excavation and stone excavation is reduced, which is conducive to the protection of the ecological environment; thirdly, after the service life of the building structure expires, the amount of solid waste generated after the structure is dismantled is small and the value of recycling of scrap steel resources is high.
◆The high degree of industrialized production: The steel structure mainly made of hot-rolled H-beam has a high degree of industrialized production, which is convenient for machinery manufacturing, intensive production, high precision, convenient installation, and easy quality assurance. It can be built into a real house manufacturing plant, bridge manufacturing plant, industrial plant production plant, etc. The development of steel structures has created and promoted the development of hundreds of new industries.
◆Fast construction speed: small footprint, suitable for all-weather construction, and little affected by climatic conditions. The construction speed of hot-rolled H-beam steel structures is about 2-3 times that of concrete structures, which doubles the capital turnover rate, reduces the financial cost, and saves investment.
H-beam is mainly used for beam and column members in industrial and civil structures.
◆Steel piles and supporting structure of underground engineering
◆Steel piles and support structure of underground engineering
Petrochemical, electric power, and other industrial equipment structures
◆Large span steel bridge members
Ship and machinery manufacturing frame structure
Trains, automobiles, tractors beam supports
◆Port conveyor belt, high-speed baffle bracket
No matter the I-beam is ordinary or light, because the cross-sectional size is relatively high and narrow, the two main sleeves of the cross-section have a large difference in rotational inertia. Therefore, it can generally only be used directly in the plane of its width. Bending elements or combining them into lattice-type force-bearing elements. The use of axially stressed elements or elements perpendicular to the web plane and with bending is not advisable, which makes the range of applications very limited.
H-beams are an efficient and economical cut section (others are cold-formed thin-walled steel, profiled steel, etc.). Due to the reasonable cross-sectional shape, they make the steel more efficient and increase the cutting capacity. Unlike ordinary I-beams, H-beams have wider flanges, usually with parallel inner and outer surfaces, which facilitate connections to members such as high-strength bolts. Its dimensions constitute a reasonable series with a complete range of models for easy design selection. (Except for I-beam of crane beam)
The flange of H-beams is all of the equal thickness, with a rolled section and a combined section made of three plates welded together. I-beams are all rolled sections. Due to the poor production process, the inner edge of the flange has a slope of 1:10. The rolling of the H-beam is different from the ordinary I-beam which has only one set of horizontal rolls. Because of its wider flange and no slope (or small slope), it needs to add a set of vertical rolls to roll at the same time. The rolling process and equipment are more complicated than the ordinary rolling mill. The maximum height of rolled H-beam that can be produced in China is 800mm, which can only be welded combination section.
China’s national standard for hot-rolled H-beams (GB/T11263-1998) divides H-beams into three categories: narrow flange, wide flange, and steel piles, whose code names are Hz, HK, and hu. Narrow-flange H-beams are suitable for beams or compression-formed members, while wide-flange H-beams and H-beam piles are suitable for axial compression or compression-formed members. Compared with H-beams, w, ix, and I am inferior to H-beams at the same weight.
I-beams have small side lengths, are tall, and can only withstand one-way forces.
H-beam channels are deep and thick and can withstand forces in both directions.
With the development of steel structure, only I-beam is not enough, i.e. thicker I-beam, which tends to lose stability when used for load-bearing columns.
I-beams can only be used for beams, while H-beams can be used for structural load-bearing columns.
H-beam is a kind of economical cross-sectional steel with better mechanical properties than I-beam. It is named after the shape of the cross-section which is the same as the letter “H” in English. The flange of the hot-rolled H-beam is wider than that of the I-beam, with greater transverse stiffness and stronger bending resistance.